It appears that your browser may be outdated and performance may be limited. The My Study builder is best viewed with the latest internet browsers. However, if you’d prefer to use our standard form, you can access it below.

Go to Internet Explorer Quick Quote Form

Dismiss this message

Salivary Bioscience News

Cytokine levels measured in gingival crevicular fluid as an oral health application

Postmenopausal women with HIV have increased tooth loss

Wadhwa, S et al. ( 2024) BMC Oral Health


Background: With effective antiretroviral therapy, people with HIV (PWH) are living longer and aging; the majority of PWH in the United States are now over the age of 50 and in women have gone through the menopause transition. Menopause potentiates skeletal bone loss at the spine, hip, and radius in PWH. The alveolar bone which surronds the teeth is different than long bones because it is derived from the neural crest. However, few studies have assessed the oral health and alveolar bone in middle aged and older women with HIV. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate periodontal disease and alveolar bone microarchitecture in postmenopausal women with HIV.

Methods: 135 self-reported postmenopausal women were recruited (59 HIV-, 76 HIV + on combination antiretroviral therapy with virological suppression) from a single academic center. The following parameters were measured: cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17 A, OPG, and RANKL) in gingival crevicular fluid, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, number of teeth present, alveolar crestal height, and alveolar bone microarchitecture.

Results: The mean age of participants was 57.04+/-6.25 years and a greater proportion of women with HIV were black/African American (HIV + 68.42%, HIV- 23.73%; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in bleeding on probing (p = 0.17) and attachment loss (p = 0.39) between women who were HIV infected vs. HIV uninfected. Women with HIV had significantly higher RANKL expression in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (HIV + 3.80+/-3.19 pg/ul, HIV- 1.29+/-2.14 pg/ul ; p < 0.001), fewer teeth present (HIV + 17.75+/-7.62, HIV- 22.79+/-5.70; p < 0.001), ), lower trabecular number (HIV + 0.08+/-0.01, HIV- 0.09+/-0.02; p = 0.004) and greater trabecular separation (HIV + 9.23+/-3.11, HIV- 7.99+/-3.23; p = 0.04) compared to women without HIV that remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis in a sub-cohort after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and diabetes.

Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with HIV have deterioration of the alveolar trabecular bone microarchitecture that may contribute to greater tooth loss.

View Abstract

Keywords: HIV, postmenopausal women, cytokines, tooth loss, gingival crevicular fluid, periodontal disease

*Note: Salimetrics provides this information for research use only (RUO). Information is not provided to promote off-label use of medical devices. Please consult the full-text article.

WordPress Cookie Plugin by Real Cookie Banner
Contact: Salimetrics (USA)
View All International Distributors

New from Salimetrics!

Ready-to-go Customized Participant Collection Packs

The best value for your study.

Learn More

OR CALL 800.790.2258

Participant Collection Packs